Wednesday, July 31, 2002

Erti rindu akan perjuangan

Email ini dipetik dari :: ::

Assalamualaikum sahabiah semua...

Sesungguhnya tertulisnya warkah ini adalah atas kerinduan kepada jalan perjuangan yang mula sepi dalam hidup ana.

Ditakdirkan kampus ana terpaksa bergelut dengan cengkaman politik yang begitu meresahkan, pastinya kalian tahu tentang situasi yang berlaku, lalu segalanya terpaksa dihentikan.

Ana rindu akan sahabiah semua, setiap kali bercerita tentang perjuangan dalam membentuk diri menjadi seorang dai'e, tidak pernah terlepas bayangan ukhwah yang kita bina diruang mata. Walau ukhwah itu terbina dalam masa yang amat singkat namun disitu telah mengajar ana erti sebuah persaudaraan. Tiada lagi tamrin dan usrah yang dapat ana ikuti, sedang ana dalam keadaan amat dahagakannya.

Maafkan ana kiranya warkah ini mengganggu dan tidak memberikan apa-apa informasi.Namun kadangkala gagal dalam menangani segala cabaran apabila jauh dalam kehidupan berjamaah dan jauh dari tarbiyah serta pengisian.Ana cuba untuk mewakili mad'u yang terpaksa menelan keperitan dalam mengenang saat-saat manis mendengar tazkirah dan titisan ilmu dari naqibah kami.

Saat-saat mengikut program KARISMA yang mengenalkan kepada kami betapa manisnya jalan perjuangan,yang entah bila dapat kami kecapi kembali.

Ana cuma sempat mengikuti program KEMANA, namun ia sudah cukup mengenalkan ana pada karisma.

Doakanlah moga suatu hari nanti Allah izinkan sebuah pertemuan, agar tarbiyah ini tidak terhenti.

ana fakir

CAIR-NET: Greyhound Again Profiles Muslim Bus Passenger

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful


Pa. traveler removed from bus in Ohio after driver notes Muslim name

(WASHINGTON, D.C., 7/30/02) - CAIR is calling for a meeting with Greyhound
Lines Inc. following what it says is the second case of anti-Muslim
profiling within a month.

The latest incident involved a Muslim passenger from Pennsylvania who told
CAIR he was removed from a Greyhound bus early Sunday during a stopover in
Cincinnati, Ohio, after the driver made note of his obviously Muslim name.
(The man's last name is "Muhammad.")

The 40-year-old African-American passenger, who was traveling with his wife
from Philadelphia to Nashville, says he moved to one of the front seats of
the bus during the stopover, but was told he could not sit directly behind
the driver. (The Muslim passenger, who is on disability because of injuries
resulting from an industrial accident, wished to sit in the front seat to
stretch out because of pain in his knees. The man's wife wore Islamic
attire.) He was given permission to move to the front seat across the isle.

The driver then began taking tickets from the passengers, beginning in the
back of the bus. When he reached the Muslim passenger, he allegedly looked
at the Islamic name on the ticket, said it out loud, and then told the
passenger he had to move again. (No other passenger names were verbalized.)

When questioned as to why he was being asked to move for the second time,
the driver brought a supervisor who told the passenger all the front seats
were reserved for handicapped travelers. The Muslim passenger informed the
supervisor that he is handicapped, but agreed nonetheless to move to his
original seat.

At that point, the driver left the bus and summoned a police officer who
told the Muslim passenger he would have to leave the bus because of an
"altercation" with the driver. As the passenger was leaving the bus, the
driver allegedly threw his ticket on the floor. The passenger was then
forced to wait three hours for a second bus.

In a similar incident on June 29, a Muslim passenger from New York was
kicked off a bus in Washington, D.C., apparently because of his faith and
ethnicity. He was told that other passengers did not want to travel with him.

"There appears to be a systemic problem with Greyhound and its treatment of
Muslim passengers. The company needs to meet with American Muslim
representatives to address this issue in a manner that will allow Muslim
travelers to feel comfortable riding on its buses," said CAIR
Communications Director Ibrahim Hooper. He also suggested a company-wide
audit of policies and training designed to prevent such incidents from
occurring in the future.

Hooper added that his group believes Greyhound's actions violated the
public accommodation clause of Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
That clause states:

"All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the
goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of
any place of public accommodation...without discrimination or segregation
on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin."

CAIR has received more than 200 reports of profiling by airport and airline
personnel since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.


Contact Greyhound to request that top management meet with CAIR to discuss
discrimination by company employees against Muslim passengers.


Mr. Craig Lentzsch
Chief Executive Officer
Greyhound Lines, Inc.
15110 North Dallas Parkway
Dallas, TX, 75248

FAX: 972-387-1874

Terengganu Hudud Bill gets royal assent

Yap Mun Ching
7:59pm Wed Jul 31st, 2002

Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu has inked his approval of the PAS state government’s much debated Syariah Criminal Offences Enactment after being briefed on the bill last week.

According to Terengganu Menteri Besar Abdul Hadi Awang’s press secretary Zahari Mohd today, the Sultan gave his consent after hearing explanations from state ministers last Thursday.

“Before the Sultan signs any amendment to the state constitution, the state government is required to give the necessary explanations on the law,” said Zahari when contacted.

The bill, which evoked strong criticism from various quarters, was passed by the state assembly during a sitting on July 8.

Although the Sultan’s approval was welcomed by the PAS government, it was not vital as state legislation provides for enactments to take effect 30 days after receiving approval of the state assembly even without the Sultan’s consent.

Last month, Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamad said the federal government will obstruct the implementation of the bill if it is within its powers to do so.

"The government will study the powers vested in the federal government in this matter and if it has the power, the government will obstruct the implementation of the proposed bill which is unfair...which is against the teachings of Islam,” he said.

The Attorney-General’s Chambers later said it will look into the matter once the bill has been passed.

Asked when the bill would be presented to Parliament, Zahari said this would be done when the situation calls for further action.

On the Terengganu police’s refusal to assist in enforcing Syariah laws, Zahari said representatives of the state government have not met with the police to discuss the matter.

He added that the law can still be effectively implemented by the state Religious Affairs Department’s enforcement division.

Palace officials could not be reached for comment.

Non-Muslim rep

In another development, Zahari said the state assembly will hold further discussions to amend the state constitution to allow for the appointment of a non-Muslim representative as a member of the state legislative assembly.

“If none of the elected representatives are non-Muslims, (the amendment) will allow for the appointment of such a person,” he explained.

Asked if the state government has identified any potential candidate to fulfill this role, Zahari said the respective non-Muslim communities would be consulted before any appointment is made.

At present, all elected members of the Terengganu state assembly are Muslims, with PAS members making up a two-third majority.

Tuesday, July 30, 2002

Qasidah Burda

:: when the heart speaks, the mind begins to understand, and the limbs swing
along in the same rhythm.

the following is a "cut&paste, not in order" excerpt from Qasidah Burda, a
poem that comes from the heart, by Imam al Busiri.
what has happened to your eyes,(the more) you tell them to stop, the more
they continue flowing.
what is the matter with your heart, (the more) you tell it to come to its
senses,(the more it is distracted).

does the lover think that his love can be concealed?
while his eyes are shedding tears and his heart is glowing.
and how do you deny love after the testimony?
borne against you by(such) reliable witnesses.

i transgressed the sunnat of him (Nabi, Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam) who
passed the night (in ibaadat),
until his feet complained of injury due to being swollen.
and he tied and folded, on account of hunger, around his stomach,
a stone beneath which is his delicate skin.
and high mountains of gold (tried to) tempt him.
towards it, but he was (completely) disinclined due to his high courage.

he called (people) towards Allah, so those who cling to him, cling to a
rope, which will never snap.
he transcends the Ambiyaa, physically and in (noble) character.
and they all stopped before him at their (assigned) limits.
for he is the one with whom, ended all outward and inward perfection's
and then the Creator of all creation chose him as (His) most beloved.
he is like how the sun is seen, by the eyes from far.
verily small, yet hurts (dazzles) the eye (when you stare at it).

no perfume equals the dust (earth) which is touching his (Rasulullah
Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam's mubarak) body,
glad tidings be to the person who smells it (the dust) and kisses it.
and how can people understand the reality of this man?
when people are immersed in their dreams, preoccupied with their fantasies.

and like the cloud following him wherever he went,
sheltering him from the intense heat, (as that) of an oven in the blazing
do not deny that his dreams are revelations,
for verily his heart does not sleep, when eyes sleep.
he revived the starving year (of famine) through his duaa,
by means of a cloud which rained so abundantly, you would think large rivers
gushing forth from the sea

he used to lead an ocean of an army on galloping horses.
with every brave warrior, greedy for the flesh of the enemy.
of every volunteer, having hope of reward from Allah,
fighting to exterminate kufr and to destroy it.
he lodged his ummat in the fort of his religion,
like a lion which lodges with its cubs in a jungle.

it is sufficient for you as a miracle, (to have so vast) knowledge in an
unlettered person.
in the period of ignorance, and such noble etiquettes in an orphan.

and O messenger of Allah, your exalted status will not diminish, because of
me (intercession on my behalf).
when the Most Bountiful (Allah Ta'aala) will manifest (Himself) by the name
of the punisher.
so order clouds of blessings (salutations) from you perpetually.
upon Nabi Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam abundantly and gently
and upon his family and his Sahaabah, then upon those who follow them.
the people of piety, knowledge, clemency and generosity.

as long as the easterly breeze makes the branches of the cypress rustle.
and (as long as) the camel riders make their camels march with enchanting
forgive its writer and its reader.
i ask of you all goodness O You the Most Generous and Most Munificent.

:: have you expressed your heart today?

[excerpted from MISG Mailing List]

Monday, July 29, 2002

Talhah ibn Ubaydullah - "A Walking Martyr on the ground!"

Returning to Makkah in haste after a trading trip to Syria, Talhah asked his family: "Did anything happen in Makkah since we left?" "Yes," they replied. "Muhammad ibn Abdullah emerged alleging that he is a Prophet and Abu Quhafah (Abu Bakr) has followed him."

"I used to know Abu Bakr," said Talhah. "He is an easy-going, amiable, gentle man. He was an honest and upright trader. We were quite fond of him and loved sitting in his company because of his knowledge of Quraysh history and genealogy."

Later, Talhah went to Abu Bakr and asked: "Is it true what they say, that Muhammad ibn Abdullah has appeared as a Prophet and that you follow him." "Yes," replied Abu Bakr and went on to tell Talhah about Muhammad and what a good thing it would be if he too followed him. Talhah in turn told Abu Bakr the story of his strange recent encounter with an ascetic in the market-place of Busra in Syria. The ascetic is said to have told Talhah that someone called "Ahmad" would appear in Makkah about that time and that he would be the last of the Prophets. He also told Talhah, so the story goes, that the Prophet would leave the sacred precincts of Makkah and migrate to a land of black soil, water and palm trees...

Abu Bakr was astonished by the story and took Talhah to Muhammad. The Prophet, peace be on him, explained Islam to Talhah and recited some portions of the Quran to him. Talhah was enthusiastic. He related to the Prophet his conversation with the ascetic of Busra. There and then, Talhah pronounced the Shahadah - that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. He was the fourth person who had been introduced to Islam by Abu Bakr.

The Quraysh were astounded by the young Talhah's acceptance of Islam. The one who was most dismayed and unhappy was his mother. She had hoped that he would one day be a leader in his community because of his noble character and his outstanding virtues. Some of the Quraysh, anxious and worried, went to Talhah as soon as they could to wean him away from his new religion but found him firm and unshakable as a rock. When they despaired of using gentle persuasion to achieve their aim, they resorted to persecution and violence. The following story is related by Masud ibn Kharash:

"While I was making saiy between as-Safa and al-Marwa, there appeared a crowd of people pushing a young man whose hands were tied behind his back. As they rushed behind him, they rained down blows on his head. In the crowd was an old woman who lashed him repeatedly and shouted abuses at him. I asked: 'What's the matter with this young man?' 'This is Talhah ibn Ubaydullah. He gave up his religion and now follows the Banu Hashim man.' 'And who is the woman behind him?' I asked. 'She is as-Sabah bint al-Hadrami, the young man's mother,' they said.

The Quraysh did not stop there. Nawfal ibn Khuwaylid, nicknamed the 'lion of the Quraysh" bound Talhah with a rope and with the same rope he tied up Abu Bakr and then handed them over to the mindless and violent mob of Makkah to be beaten and tortured. The shared experience no doubt drew Talhah and Abu Bakr closer together!

Years passed and events of great significance took place. Talhah grew in stature as he bore the pain and suffering of being tested in the path of God and His Prophet. He gained the unique reputation among Muslims of being called the "living martyr". The Prophet, peace be on him, also called him "Talhah the Good" and "Talhah the Generous".

The name of the "living martyr" was earned during the Battle of Uhud. Talhah had missed the Battle of Badr. He and Said ibn Zayd had been sent outside Madinah on a mission by the Prophet and when they returned, the Prophet and his companions were already on the way back from Badr. They were both sad at having missed the opportunity of taking part in the first campaign with the Prophet but were tremendously pleased when he told them they would get the same reward as those who actually fought.

At the Battle of Uhud, when the Muslims fell into disarray at the beginning of hostilities the Prophet became dangerously exposed. There were about eleven men of the Ansar at his side and one Muhajir - Talhah ibn Ubaydullah. The Prophet clambered up the mountain hotly pursued by some mushrikin. The Prophet, peace be on him, shouted:

"The one who repulses these people from us will be my companion in Paradise." "I, O Messenger of god," shouted Talhah.

"No, stick to your position," replied the Prophet. A man from the Ansar volunteered and the Prophet agreed. He fought until he was killed. The Prophet went further up the mountain with the mushrikin still in close pursuit. "Isn't there someone to combat these?"

Talhah again volunteered but the Prophet ordered him to maintain his position. Another person immediately came forward, fought and was killed. This happened until all who stood by the Prophet were martyred except Talhah.

"Now, yes," signalled the Prophet and Talhah went into battle. By this time, the Prophet's teeth had been broken, his forehead had been slashed, his lips had been wounded and blood was streaming down his face. He was drained of energy. Talhah plunged into the enemy and pushed them away from the Prophet. He turned back to the Prophet and helped him a little further up the mountain and put him to lie on the ground. He then renewed his attack and successfully repulsed the enemy. About this occasion Abu Bakr said:

"At that moment, Abu Ubayd ibn al-Jarrah and I were far from the Prophet. When we came close to him to render assistance to him, the Prophet said: 'Leave me and go to your companion (meaning Talhah)."

There was Talhah, bleeding profusely. He had numerous wounds, from sword, spear and arrow. His foot had been cut and he had fallen into a hollow where he lay unconscious.

Thereafter, the Prophet, peace be on him, said: "Whoever is pleased to see a man still walking on earth who had completed his span (of life), let him look at Talhah ibn Ubaydallah."

And, whenever Uhud was recalled, As-Siddiq, may God be pleased with him, would say: "That day, that entire day, belonged to Talhah."

That was the story of how Talhah became to be called the "living martyr". There were unnumerabIe incidents which led to him being called "Talhah the Good" and "Talhah the Generous".

Talhah was an astute and successful merchant who travelled widely to the north and south of the Arabian peninsula. It is said that after one of his trips to Hadramawt, he had profits amounting to some seven hundred thousand dirhams. His nights would be anxious and worried on account of this vast wealth. On one such night, his wife, Umm Kulthum the daughter of Abu Bakr, said to him:

"What's wrong with you, O father of Muhammad? Perhaps I have done something to hurt you.'?" "No ," replied Talhah. "You are a wonderful wife for a Muslim man. But I have been thinking since last night: How can a man think of his Lord and Sustainer when he goes to sleep with this wealth in his house?"

"Why should it bother you so much ," remarked Umm Kulthum. "What about all the needy ones in your community and all your friends? When you get up in the morning share it out among them."

"God bless you. You are really marvellous, the daughter of a marvellous man," said Talhah to his wife. In the morning, Talhah gathered up the money in bags and distributed it among the poor Muhajirin and Ansar.

It is related that a man came up to Talhah requesting help and also mentioning some common family connection between them.

"This family connection someone has mentioned to me before," said Talhah who was in fact known for his generosity to all members of his clan. Talhah told the man that he had just sold a piece of land to Uthman ibn Affan for several thousand dirhams. The man could have the money or the land which could be re-purchased from Uthman. The man opted for the money and Talhah gave it all to him.

Talhah was well-known for helping persons who had debt problems, heads of families who experienced hardship, and widows. One of his friends, as-Saib ibn Zayd, said of him: "I accompanied Talhah ibn Ubaydallah on journeys and I stayed with him at home and I have not found anyone who was more generous with money, with clothes and with food than Talhah."

No wonder he was called "Talhah the Good" and "Talhah the Generous".

The name Talhah is also connected with the first fitnah or civil war among Muslims after the death of the prophet, peace be on him.

The seeds of trouble were sown during the caliphate of Uthman ibn Affan. There were many complaints and accusations against him. Some mischief-makers were not content with accusations only but were determined to finish him off. In the year 35 AH (656 CE) a group of insurgents stormed Uthman's house and murdered him while he was reading the Quran. It was one of the most shocking events in the early history of Islam.

Ali was persuaded to accept the responsibility of the Caliphate and all Muslims swore allegiance to him, including Talhah and Zubayr ibn al-Awwam. Talhah and Zubayr were deeply shocked by the murder of Uthman. They were horrified and felt strongly that the murderers should be punished and that justice should be done. But the punishment of the murderers was not an easy task in as much as the crime was not just the work of a few individuals but involved a large number of persons.

Talhah and Zubayr sought Ali's permission to go to Makkah to perform Umrah. They met Aishah the wife of the Prophet. She was greatly shocked when she heard of the assassination of Uthman. From Makkah, Talhah, Zubayr and Aishah set off for Basrah where large numbers were gathering to seek revenge for the death of Uthman.

The forces gathered at Basrah seemed to present an open challenge to Ali. As the caliph of the Muslims and the head of the entire Muslim State, he could not tolerate any insurrection or armed revolt against the State. But what a difficult and awesome task he faced! To deal with the revolt, he had to confront his brothers, his companions and his friends-followers of the Prophet and his religion, those who often fought side by side with him against the forces of shirk, those whom he respected and loved.

The forces clamoring for vengeance for Uthman and those supporting Ali met at a place called Kuraybah, near Basrah. Ali desired to avoid war and settle matters by peaceful means. He used every means at his disposal to achieve peace. He clung to every hope of avoiding confrontation. But the dark forces at work against Islam and how numerous were these, were determined that matters should come to a terrible and bloody end.

Ali wept. He wept bitterly when he saw Aishah, the "Mother of the Believers" in her hawdaj or palanquin astride a camel at the head of the army which now emerged to fight him. And when he saw Talhah and Zubayr, two close companions of the Prophet, in the midst of the army, he shouted to them to come out to him. They did and Ali said to Talhah:

"O Talhah, have you come with the wife of the Messenger of Allah to fight along with her...?" And to Zubayr he said:

"O Zubayr, I implore you, by God, do you remember the day when the Prophet. peace be on him, passed by you and we were in such and such a place and he asked you: 'Do you love Ali?' and you said: 'Why shouldn't I love my cousin and one who follows my religion...?'"

Ali continued talking to them reminding them of the bonds of brotherhood and faith. In the end both Talhah and Zubayr withdrew from participation in this civil war. They withdrew immediately when they saw the situation in a different light. But they paid for that withdrawal with their lives.

As they withdrew, a man named Amr ibn Jarmouz followed Zubayr and cowardly murdered him while he performed Salat. Talhah was killed by an arrow allegedly shot by Marwan - a cousin of Uthman who was too blinded by rage and the desire to seek revenge for his kinsman to respond to the possibility of avoiding war and bloodshed among Muslims.

The murder of Uthman had become Talhah's tryst with destiny. He did not participate in the fighting and killing that followed that came to be known in history as the "Battle of the Camel". Indeed, if he had known that the fitnah would have degenerated into such insane hatred and bitterness and resulted in such a bloody outcome, he would have resisted it. He was not keen to fight Ali. He was simply appalled by the murder of Uthman and wanted to see justice done. Before the beginning of the battle he had said in a voice choked with emotion:

"O Lord, for the sake of Uthman, take from me this day until You are pleased." Then when Ali faced him and Zubayr, they saw the correctness of his position and withdrew from the field of battle. Yet, in these difficult circumstances, martyrdom was reserved for them.

The Battle of Camel came to an end. Aishah, the mother of the believers, realized that she had precipitated matters and left Basrah for the Sacred Mosque and then to Madinah distancing herself from the conflict. Ali provided well for her journey giving her all the comfort and honor due to her.

When the numerous dead from the battle were brought together, Ali led the funeral prayer for them all, those who were with him and those who were against him. And when he had finished burying Talhah and Zubayr he bade farewell to them with a heavy heart, a heart filled with tenderness and love.

"I really hope," he said in simple and sublime words, "that Talhah, az-Zubayr, Uthman and I will be among those of whom God has said: 'And We shall remove from their hearts any lurking sense of injury and rancor; they will be brothers joyfully facing each other on thrones of dignity.' "(The Quran, Surah al-Hijr, 15:47)

Then he looked tenderly and sorrowfully on the graves of his brothers in faith and said: "I have heard with these two ears of mine the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, saying: "Talhah and az-Zubayr are my companions in Paradise!"

Secara mudahnya aurat dapat diertikan sebagai bahagian tubuh badan, sama ada lelaki ataupun wanita yang diwajibkan oleh syarak menutupnya daripada pandangan mata. Para ulama membahagikan batas-batas aurat tersebut, khususnya ketika di luar sembahyang kepada 4 kategori iaitu :

1) Aurat lelaki bersama lelaki
2) Aurat wanita ketika bersama wanita
3) Aurat lelaki ketika bersama wanita
4) Aurat wanita ketika bersama lelaki


Aurat lelaki yang wajib ditutupnya daripada pandangan seorang lelaki lain ialah bahagian tubuh badan antara pusat dan lututnya. Ini bererti bahawa seorang lelaki tidak diharuskan melihat aurat lelaki lain pada bahagian yang terletak antara pusat dan lututnya.

Hukum ini dipersetujui oleh jumhur ulamak berdasarkan kepada beberapa buah Hadis Sahih, antaranya sebagaimana yang diriwayatkan oleh Abu Ayyub r.a bermaksud:
“Bahagian anggota yang terletak di atas dua lutut adalah termasuk aurat dan bahagian anggota yang terletak di bawah pusat adalah aurat juga.”

Amru bin Shuib pula meriwayatkan daripada bapanya daripada datuknya bahawa baginda Rasulullah s.a.w bersamda maksudnya:
“Apabila salah seorang di antara kamu mengahwinkan hamba wanitanya dengan hamba lelakinya ataupun orang upahannya maka dia (iaitu hamba wanitanya) dilarang sama sekali melihat auratnya kerana apa sahaja (bahagian anggota) yang terletak di bawah pusatnya hingga kepada dua lututnya adalah auratnya.”

Selanjutnya Rasulullah s.a.w juga melarang melihat aurat itu sebagaimana sabda baginda bermaksud:
“Seorang lelaki dilarang melihat aurat lelaki lain dan juga seorang wanita dilarang melihat aurat seorang wanita lain.”

Hanya Imam Malik yang bercanggah pendapat dengan mengatakan bahawa paha bukanlah aurat. Bagaimanapun,
terdapat beberapa dalil yang mengukuhkan pendapat
jumhur ulamak di antaranya:

Sebuah Hadis riwayat Jurhud al-Aslami, beliau berkata bahawa suatu ketika Rasulullah s.a.w telah duduk bersama-sama kami, pada saat itu paha saya terdedah, lalu baginda bertanya saya: Apakah tidak kamu tahu bahawa paha itu aurat?”

Diriwayatkan juga bahawa baginda s.a.w telah bersabda kepada Ali r.a :
“Janganlah kamu dedahkan paha kamu dan jangan pula kamu melihat paha orang lain sama ada yang masih hidup ataupun yang sudah mati.”

Malah Rasulullah s.a.w juga melarang kita mendedahkan aurat biarpun ketika bersendirian sebagaimana sabda baginda bermaksud :
“Jauhilah daripada perbuatan berbogel, sesungguhnya ada bersama-sama kamu orang yang tidak berpisah denganmu, kecuali ketika membuang air (besar dan kecil) dan ketika seseorang lelaki itu bersetubuh dengan isterinya.”


Jika seseorang wanita Islam bersama-sama wanita Islam yang lain, maka aurat yang mesti ditutup ialah bahagian anggota yang terletak di antara pusat dan lutut. Ini bermakna bahawa seorang wanita Islam harus melihat anggota lain selain daripada anggota yang terletak di antara pusat dan lutut wanita Islam yang lain.

Manakala kedudukan aurat seorang wanita Islam dengan wanita bukan Islam pula para ulamak berselisih pendapat mengenainya. Perselisihan berlaku berpunca daripada penafsiran gantinama (dhamir) “mereka” dalam ayat 31 surah al-Nur yang bermaksud:
“Perintahlah (wahai Muhammad) akan wanita Mukminin supaya mereka mengawasi “mereka” dan supaya mereka menjaga alat-alat kemain mereka dan aurat mereka. Dan tidak boleh mereka memperlihatkan aurat mereka kecuali aurat yang zahir (muka dan dua tapak tangan). Dan wajib mereka memakai tudung kepala serta menutupi bahagian dada mereka….”

Para ulamak yang menafsirkan gantinama “mereka” itu dengan erti wanita-wanita Islam sahaja, berpendapat adalah tidak harus wanita-wanita Islam mendedahkan sebarang sebarang aurat mereka biarpun yang lain selain daripada anggita yang terletak di antara pusat dan lutut apabila berhadapan dengan wanita bukan Islam. Kedudukan wanita bukan Islam di dalam masalah
ini samalah dengan kedudukan lelaki ajnabi. Inilah pendapat yang menjadi pegangan sekumpulan fuqahak mazhab Shafie, Umar, Ibnu Abbas, Mujahid, Ibnu Juraij dan lain-lain yang sebahagian besarnya daripada golongan ulamak salaf.

Diriwayatkan bahawa Umar r.a pernah menulis surat kepada Abu Ubaidah bin al-Jarrah katanya:
“Sesunguhnya telah sampai ke pengetahuan bahawa wanita-wanita ahli Dhimmah telah masuk ke dalam bilik-bilik mandi bersama-sama wanita Islam maka hendaklah kamu melarang perkara yang sedemikian dan menyekatnya daripada terus berlaku kerana tidak diharuskan begi seorang wanita Dhimmiyah melihat aurat wanita Islam.”

Ibnu Abbas r.s pula menyatakn bahawa “adalah tidak harus seorang wanita Islam dilihat oleh wanita Yahudi atau Nasrani.”

Bagi mereka yang mengatakan bahawa maksud gantinama “mereka” itu sebagai wanita secara umumnya, iaitu Islam dan bukan Islam, berpendapat adalah harus bagi wanita Islam mendedahkan aurat mereka di hadapan wanita bukan Islam, sama seperti kedudukannya ketika berhadapan dengan wanita Islam yang lain. Dengan erti kata bahawa wanita Islam diharuskan mendedahkan auratnya di hadapan wanita bukan Islam selain daripada anggota yang terletak di antara pusat dan lutut. Ini
adalah pendapat ulamak mazhab Hanbali dan juga salah satu pendapat fuqahak mazhab Hanafi dan Shafie. Pendapat ini disahkan pula oleh al-Ghazali dan al-Fakhrul Razi, dua ulamak tokoh dari mazhab Maliki. Al-Fakhrul Razi berkata:
“Pendapat ini adalah lebih lembut dan sesuai dengan manusia pada hari ini yang hampir-hampir tidak mungkin lagi bagi para wanita Islam melindungi diri mereka daripada pandangan wanita-wanita dhimmiyah.”

Mereka mengatakan bahawa maksud “mereka” itu adalah wanita khusus yang dikenali melalui persahabatan, pekerjaan dan perkenalan sama ada wanita Islam atau bukan Islam, menegaskan bahawa harus bagi para wanita Islam mendedahkan auratnya kecuali bahagian anggota yang terletak antara pusat dan lutut, tanpa sebarang hijab(penutup) di hadapan wanita-wanita yang terhormat dan mulia(tinggi peribadinya) biarpun mereka itu bukan Islam. Jelasnya, neraca keharusan tersebut adalah berdasarkan kepada asas akhlak, bukan asas agama. Lantaran itu, apabila wanita Islam berhadapan dengan
wanita fasik yang tidak mempunyai sifat malu, tidak berakhlak dan beradab sopan, maka wajiblah ke atas mereka menutup auratnya kerana mendampingi mereka tidak kurang bahayanya daripada mendampingi lelaki ajnabi yang mungkin merosakkan akhlaknya. Ini adalah pendapat al-Maududi, seorang ulamak mutakhir yang amat popular di kalangan umat Islam masa kini. Suatu pendapat yang sederhana yang dapat menyelaraskan dua pendapat sebelumnya, dan ia amat sesuai sekali dengan
suasana dan keadaan sekarang ini. Kita berasa agak sukar untuk menerima pendapat pertama kerana kedudukan pergaulan sekarang ini di antara orang Islam dan bukan Islam memang tidak dapat dielakkan. Setiap hari kita bertemu dan berurusan
dengan mereka di merata-rata tempat dan pada bila-bila masa sahaja. Malah kita tidak dapat pula mengamalkan pendapat kedua kerana tanpa membezakan di antara wanita bukan Islam yang berakhlak dan tidak berakhlak bererti kita mendedahkan para wanita Islam kita pada suatu keruntuhan moral yang mungkin lebih buruk daripada apa yang kita sangkakan.


Aurat seorang lelaki ketika berhadapan dengan seorang wanita adalah berbeza berdasarkan kedudukannya dengan wanita tersebut. Sekiranya mereka termasuk dalam golongan orang yang seperti bapa, adik beradik kandung, bapa saudaranya dan lain-lainnya maka aurat yang mesti ditutupi ialah bahagian anggota yang terletak antara pusat dan lututnya. Begitu juga menurut pendapat yang terkuat jika ia seorang ajnabi.

Ada pula pendapat yang mewajibkan supaya ditutup seluruh badannya apabila berhadapan dengan seorang ajnabi, iaitu tidak harus bagi seorang wanita melihat kepada seorang lelaki yang buakn mahramnya sam seperti tidak diharuskan seseorang lelaki itu melihatnya. Tetapi jika lelaki itu suaminya, maka tidak timbul masalah aurat di antara keduanya, malah tidak ada apa yang dinamakan aurat di antara mereka. Firman Allah S.W.T , al-Mukminun: 05 bermaksud:
“Dan mereka yang menjaga kehormatannya, kecuali isteri-isteri mereka atau hamba sahaya mereka, maka sesungguhnya mereka tidak tercela.”


Perbincangan kategori ini amat penting, malah kedudukannya lebih utama jika dibandingkan dengan tiga kategori sebelum ini kerana pertaliannya dengan masalah semasa. Di tambah pula dengan kejahilan sebahagian anggota masyarakat tentang hukum Islam di samping pengaruh budaya Barat yang mereka cipta pelbagai bentuk pakaian bagi wanita-wanita Islam di negara ini khususnya.

Para ulamak telah membahagikan jenis lelaki yang berada di hadapan seseorang waniat itu kepada lelaki yang menjadi ahramnya dan lelaki ajnabi (iaitu bukan mahramnya).

Jika seseorang wanita itu berhadapan dengan lelaki mahramnya, maka hokum auratnya yang wajib ditutup ialah anggota yang terletak di antara pusat dan lututnya sahaja. Ini bermakna adalah harus baginya mendedahkan bahagian anggotanya yang lain di hadapan orang-orang yang dihukum sebagai mahramnya.

Sungguhpun demikian pendapat ini bukanlah suatu pendapat yang dipersetujui oleh kesemua ulamak Islam. Ulamak mazhab Maliki mengatakan aurat seseorang wanita di hadapan lelaki mahramnya ialah seluruh badannya kecuali muka dan a’traf iaitu kepala, tengkuk, kedua tangan dan kakinya. Pendapat ini disokong oleh ulamak mazhab Hanbali dengan mengatakan bahawa auratnya bersama-sama lelaki mahramnya ialah seluruh badannya kecuali muka, tengkuk, kepala, dua tangan, kaki dan betisnya.

Jika lelaki yang berada di hadapan seseorang wanita itu merupakan lelaki ajnabi, maka terdapat perselisihan pendapat di kalangan ulamak tentang menentukan kadar auratnya, apakah auratnya yang wajib ditutup di seluruh tubuhnya hinggakan termasuk muka dan dua tangannya, ataupun ada bahagian-bahagian anggota yang dikecualikan daripada hukuman wajib
ditutup kerana tidak sengaja ataupun kerana keperluan yang tidak dapat dielakkan.

Perselisihan pendapat ini berdasarkankepada pelbagai tafsiran tentang ungkapan firman Allah S.W.T yang bermaksud:
“Dan tidak boleh mereka memperlihatkan aurat kecuali aurat yang zahir daripadanya.” (al-Nur : 31)

Ada tafsiran yang mengatakan bahawa maksud “kecuali aurat yang zahir daripadanya” itu ialah apa sahaja anggota yang terdedah tanpa disengajakan seperti terdedah kerana ditiup angin ataupun sebagainya. Ada pula tafsiran yang mengatakan bahawa ayat itu bermaksud dikecualikan apa-apa bahagian anggota yang didedahkan kerana keperluan dan tuntutan hidup yang memaksa. Ada juga tafsiran lain yang mengatakan bahawa anggota yang dikecualikan daripada larangan mendedahkannya itu ialah muka dan dua tapak tangan sahaja termasuk belakang kedua-duanya. Jika berdasarkan tafsiran pertama, maka seluruh jasad seseorang wanita itu adalah aurat yang mesti ditutup, bermula dari hujung rambutnya sehinggalah ke hujung kakinya kecuali bahagian tertentu yang terdedah tanpa disengajakan seperti ditiup angin ataupun tersangkut duri, tetapi dikehendaki segera menutupnya tanpa sengaja melambat-lambatkannya. Inilah pendapat fuqahak mazhab Hanbali dan salah satu pendapat yang terkenal di kalangan fuqahak mazhab Shafie dan juga salah satu pendapat yang masyhur di kalangan fuqahak mazhab Maliki. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal pernah menegaskan:
“Tiap suatu daripada tubuh badan seseorang wanita adalah aurat hinggakan termasuk juga kukunya.”

Dalil-dalil yang menjadi hujah bagi pendapat ini ialah firman Allah S.W.T yang bermaksud:
“Dan tidak boleh mereka memperlihatkan aurat mereka kecuali aurat yang zahir daripadanya.” (al-Nur : 31)

Mereka mengatakan bahawa ayat ini jelas menunjukkan seseorang wanita dilarang secara mutlak mendedahkan apa sahaja anggota badannya di hadapn lelaki ajnabi, dan mereka mengatakan bahawa maksud pengecualian yang terdapat di dalam firman Allah tersebut ialah apa yang terdedah tanpa disengajakan seperti akibat ditiup angin kencang yang mendedahkan tengkuknya ataupun mana-mana bahagian badannya. Firman Allah yang bermaksud:
“Apabila kamu meminta sesuatu (keperluan) kepada mereka (isteri-isteri nabi), maka mintalah dari belakang tabir. Ara yang demikian itu lebih suci bagi hati kamu dan hati mereka.” (al-Ahzab : 53)

Ayat ini menjelaskan bahawa kaum lelaki Islam dilarang melihat isteri-isteri Nabi. Walaupun ayat ini diturunkan khusus bagi isteri-isteri nabi s.a.w tetapi menurut pendapat mereka hukumnya adalah meliputi para wanita Islam lainya menerusi qias, kerana pada mereka seluruh jasad seseorang wanita itu adalah aurat. Ayat ini secara tidak langsungnya mengukuhkan maksud ayat yang pertama yang melarang wanita-wanita mendedahkan aurat mereka kepada pandangan orang-orang lelaki. Mereka juga berhujah dengan beberapa buah hadis yang menunjukkan bahawa orang lelaki dilarang daripada melihat dengan sengaja terhadap wanita-wanita antaranya:
“Saya telah bertanya Rasululah s.a.w tentang pandangan yang tidak disengajakan, baginda menjawab: palingkanlah mata kamu ke arah lain.” (Riwayat Jarir bin Abdullah)

Rasululah s.a.w bersabda:
“Ya Ali, janganlah kamu susuli pandangan dengan pandagan yang lain, sesungguhnya pandangan yang pertama itu adalah milik kamu, tetapi pandangan yang kedua bukan lagi milik kamu.” (Riwayat Ali r.a)

Dari Ibnu Abbas r.a diriwayatkan bahawa al_Fadl bin al-Abbas telah menunggang unta di belakang Rasululah s.a.w pada hari al-Nahr, beliau adalah seorang yang berambut cantik, berkulit putih dan kacak, lalu datang kepada baginda seorang wanita daripada Khath’am meminta fatwanya, lalu al-Fadl melihat kepadanya dan dia juga melihat kepada al-Fadl, maka dengan itu
Rasulullah s.a.w memalingkan muka al-Fadl ke arah yang lain.

Kesemua hadis tersebut menunjukkan dengan jelas bahawa hukumnya haram perbuatan sengaja melihat wanita ajnabiah. Ini tidak lain kerana muka dan tubuh badannya adalah aurat yang dilarang melihatnya. Jika berdasarkan kepada tafsiran kedua, maka muka dan kedua tapak tangan iaitu termasuk belakang kedua-duanya, sekurang-kurangnya dua anggota bagi seseorang wanita yang harus didedahkan apabila berhadapan dengan lelaki ajnabi. Inilah pendapat fuqahak mazhab Hanafi, Maliki dan salah satu pendapat daripada Shafie.

Malah di dalam satu riwayat yang lain daripada Abu Hanifah, beliau mengatakan dua anggota kaki dan tempat memakai gelang kaki adalah termasuk ke dalam anggota yang diharuskan pendedahannya termasuk muka dan dua tapak tangan. Ini juga merupakan pendapat al-Thauri dan Abu al-Abbas kerana penutupannya akan menimbulkan kesulitan kepada wanita kampung yang miskin yang terpaksa berjalan ke sana –sini, di jalan-jalan raya, kerana memenuhi keperluan hidup seharian, malah lebih
jauh daripada itu, Abu Yusuf iaitu salah seorang sahabat Abu Hanifah berpendapat bahawa dua anggota lengan juga iaitu selain muka dan dua tapak tangan termasuk ke dalam anggota yang diharuskan pendedahannya bagi seseorang wanita kerana penutupnya akan menimbulkan banyak kesulitan.

Menurut satu pendapat yang dhaif dalam mazhab maliki, dibezakan di antara wanita yang cantik dengan wanita yang hodoh. Wanita yang cantik diwajibkan menutup muka dan dua tangannya tetapi hukuman ini tidak diwajibkan ke atas wanita hodoh. Dengan lain perkataan, muka dan dua tangan wanita yang cantik dianggap sebagai aurat yang wajib ditutup. Manakala bagi wanita yang hodoh, kedua-duanya tidak dikira sebagai aurat.

Bagi mereka yang berpegang dengan pendapat ini telah berhujah dengan dalil antaranya firman Allah yang bermaksud:
“Dan tidak boleh mereka memperlihatkan aurat mereka kecuali aurat yang zahir daripadanya.” (al-Nur :31)

Mereka mengatakan ayat tersebut telah mengecualikan bahagian-bahagian abggota yang perlu kepada pendedahan kerana memenuhi keperluan bagi diri seseorang iaitu anggota muka dan juga dua tapak tangan. Tafsiran ini adalah sama dengan pendapat sebahagian para sahabat dan tabiin seperti Said bin Jubair, Ata’ dan al-Dahhak.

Mereka juga berhujah dengan sebuah Hadis riwayatAishah r.a bahawa Asma’ Abu Bakar telah masuk menemui rasulullah s.a.w dengan memakai pakaian yang nipis, lalu Rasulullah s.a.w menegurnya, baginda bersabda:
“Ya Asma’, seseorang wanita apabila meningkat ke umur haid tidak layak dilihat daripadanya kecuali ini.”Lantas diisyaratkan kepada muka dan dua tapak tangannya.

Hadis jelas menunjukkan bahawa muka dan dua tapak tangan (termasuk belakang kedua-duanya) adalah harus didedahkan, sementara bahagian anggota lain merupakan aurat yang wajib ditutup oleh seseorang wanita yang sudah baligh.

Mereka mengatakan lagi bahawa muka dan tapak tangan bukanlah aurat yang wajib ditutup oleh seseorang wanita kerana kedua-duanya merupakan anggota yang harus didedahkan di dalam sembahyang, begitu juga semasa berihram, kalaulah kedua-duanya merupakan aurat tentulah tidak dibolehkan pendedahannya kerana menutup aurat di dalam sembahyang adah wajib. Tidak sah sembahyang seseorang itu apabila auratnya terdedah.

Pendapat kedua ini merupakan pegangan kepada golongan terbanyak ulamak Islam kerana itu ia dianggap sebagai jumhur.

Apa yang menjadi hujah kepada kumpulan pertama, di antaranya sebagaimana maksud firman Allah:
“Dan apabila kamu meminta sesuatu yang harus diminta daripada isteri-isteri Nabi, maka mintalah dari sebalik tabir.” (al-Ahzab : 53)

Ayat tersebut dianggap oleh jumhur ulamak sebagai mengandungi hukum khas bagi isteri-isteri Nabi sahaja kerana kedudukan dan kehormatan mereka yang tinggi dan tidak dimiliki oleh wanita-wanita lain. Oleh itu, tidaklah harus diletakkan mereka di bawah hukum-hukum yang khusus bagi isteri-isteri Nabi menerusi kaedah qias.

Mengenai sabda baginda kepada Jarir bin Abdullah:
“Palingkanlah mata kamu ke arah lain.” Dan sabda baginda kepada Ali bin Abu Talib:
“Ya Ali, janganlah kamu susuli pandangan(mata kamu itu) dengan pandangan yang lain…” Mereka menyatakan bahawa maksud hadis-hadis itu melarang seseorang nelihat dengan sengaja kepada tubuh badan seseorang wanita tanpa sebarang keperluan kerana perbuatan sengaja melihat itu boleh menimbulkan akibat buruk dan sangkaan yang tidak baik, sedangkan kita disuruh agar menjauhkan diri daripada segala sangkaan buruk.

Tentang hadis yang meriwayatkan bahawa Rasululah s.a.w telah memalingkan muka al-Fadl bin al Abbas itu pula, mereka mengatakan tindakan itu adalah disebabkan baginda berasa takut akan timbulnya fitnah dari apa yang berlaku di hadapannya. Hadis ini menurut jumhur hanya menunjukkan hokum harus melihat kepada seseorang wanita ketika tidak ada kemungkinan berlakunya fitnah. Berdasarkan kepada hujah-hujah yang dikemukakan oleh kedua-dua belah pihak, maka para fuqahak mazhab Hanbali dan pihak jumhur, ditambah pula dengan hujah-hujah jumhur ulamak bagi mematahkan hujah-hujah mereka itu, maka ternyata bahawa pendapat jumhur adalah yang terkuat dan munasabah diamalkan di dalam kehidupan wanita pada hari ini. Malah kalau diperhatikan kepada nature syariat Islam itu sendiri ia bersifat mudah, bertolak ansur dan lembut, tidak terdapat di dalam pengajaran dan hukum-hukumnya sesuatu yang susah dan menyulitkan penganutnya. Dalam hal ini tentunya kita lebih cenderung dengan pendapat jumhur ulamak yang terdiri daripada ulamak mazhab Maliki, Hanafi dan sebahagian fuqahak Mazhab Shafie yang mengatakan bahawa muka dan dua tapak tangan bukanlah aurat seseorang wanita yang wajib ditutup apabila berhadapan dengan lelaki ajnabi. Memaksa seseorang wanita menutup muka dan juga dua tapak tangan akan menyebabkan timbulnya kesulitan yang berat kepada yang miskin dan tidak mempunyai sesiapa yang membantu mereka dalam kehidupan mereka seharian seperti untuk keluar ke pasar, jalan-jalan raya, lading dan melakukan pekerjaan tertentu bagi memnuhi keperluan hidup dan tuntutan hidup mereka.

Walaupun pendapat ini mengharuskan pendedahan muka dan dua tapak tangan, tetapi keharusan itu adalah terikat secara khusus dengan keadaan yang tidak menimbulkan fitnah terhadap diri seseorang wanita itu. Sekiranya dalam keadaan yang tidak terjamin keselamatannya dan ditakuti akan menimbulkan fitnah, ataupun dalam suasana di amna terdapat ramai orang jahat maka tidak diharuskan bagi seseorang wanita itu keluar rumahnya dengan mukanya yang terdedah atau sebahagian auratnya yang lain terdedah.

Perlu diingatkan bahawa pertentangan pendapat di kalangan ulamak tentang hokum wajib menutup muka ataupun tidak adalah berdasarkan kepada muka yang bersih dan tabie yang tidak disolekkan dengan sebarang solekan yang mempersonakan pandangan lelaki kepadanya ataupun muka itu tidak terlalu cantik. Tetapi jika muka itu disolekkan atau dihias dengan hiasan tertentu ataupun muka itu terlalu cantik yang menarik perhatian lelaki, maka muka yang seperti itu dihukum sebagai aurat yang mesti ditutup biarpun di kalangan mereka yang mengharuskan pendedahannya di dalam suasana yang normal. Ini adalah kerana menjaga kaum wanita daripada kesulitan dan kesusahan yang mungkin timbul di samping mengawal kaum lelaki dari melakukan perbuatan ataupun tidak tindakan yang tidak wajar dan dilarang oleh syarak.

Sesungguhnya apabila dikatakan muka dan dua tapak tangan itu tidak dikira sebagai aurat yang mesti ditutup bukanlah bermakna wajib ke atas seseorang wanita itu mendedahkannya ataupun tidak menutupnya dianggap sebagai bida’h, kerana pendapat begini tidak pernah diucapkan oleh mana-mana ulamak pun. Malahan ia bermaksud tidaklah menjadi apa-apa kesalahan mendedahkan kedua-duanya(muka and dua tapak tangan) di dalam suasana biasa yang tidak menimbulkan sebarang

Dalam suasana yang ada di negara kita sekarang ini di mana pelbagai gejala social berlaku tindakan liar terhadap kaum wanita dan segbagainya, mak sudah sampai masanya umat Islam kita kembali kepada pengajaran Islam yang murni dan mengamalkannya di dalam kehidupan seharian. Buangkanlah sikap dan anggapan bahawa menutup aurat itu adalah suatu tanda kepada kemunduran, menakutkan para pelabur dan pelancong dan bebrapa tanggapan negatif lagi. Pilihlah suatu yang
lebih bermanfaat bagi diri kita berdasarkan kepada peraturan dan ajaran Islam yang kita anuti dan yakini selama ini. Islam tidak pernah membawa umatnya ke arah kemunduran dan kemusnahan tetapi pengabaian umat terhadap pengajaran dan hukumnya adalah punca kepada keruntuhan tamadun manusia.



Memoar Imam Syahid
Memoar Dakwah Hasan Al-Banna
Republika Online edisi:05 Dec 1999Resensi Buku Memoar Imam Hasan Al-Banna

Pemimpin besar hanya dilahirkan sekali dalam satu kurun. Pemeo sejarah iniagaknya pantas diberikan kepada Imam Hasan Al-Banna, tokoh dakwah dangerakan islam Ikhwanul Muslimin yang lahir di Mesir Tahun 1905. Meskisyahid dalam usia relatif muda [43 tahun], menurut KH Rakhmat Abdullah[dalam pengantarnya], ketokohan dan kepemimpinan Hasan Al-Banna dalamgerakan dakwah tak pernah disangsikan. Dalam kapasitas intelektualnyasebagai konseptor, moralitas sebagai pendidik [murabbi] maupunleadershipnya sebagai pemimpin jamaah para kader da'i yang berkembang pesatdan telah menglobal hingga sekarang.

Bayangkan, dalam usia muda [setingkat SMU] dia hafal 18.000 bait puisiArab, selain Alquran dan ribuan matan hadits. Sebagai guru di sekolahnegeri, dalam usia menjelang 22 tahun, dia bahkan tampil sebagai pemimpinJamaah Ikhwanul Muslimin, dimana anggotanya adalah tokoh-tokoh sekaliberSyaikh Muhibbudin A -Khatib [seorang salafi, ahli hadits dan tokoh JamaahAnsharus Sunnah], Syaikh Amien Al-Husaini [Mufti Palestina], Syaikh DrMustafa As-Siba'i [ahli hukum, intelektual dan tokoh pejuang Palestina],Syaikh Muhammad Al-Faraghy [patriot besar yang hanya mau meninggalkanIskandaria bila Al-Banna yang menyuruhnya, bukan Inggris dengan segalakekuatan tentaranya], dan lain-lain. Tak aneh bila Dr Yusuf Al-Qardhawi, DrIsmail Faruqi, Allamah Abul Hasan Ali An Nadawi begitu kagum danmencintainya, meski jarang atau tak pernah berinteraksi langsung secarafisik. Bahkan Richard Michael --agen CIA di Kedubes AS di Cairo, Mesir--tampak ketakutan ketika Sirah Nabawiyah [perjalanan nabi] yang diajarkanHasan Al-Banna telah membangkitkan militansi generasi muda muslim.

Masyarakat awam Indonesia mungkin baru mengenal kebesaran Imam Al-Bannabelakangan, itu pun hanya sepintas lalu. Padahal sesungguhnya Al-Banna adadalam barisan terdepan dibalik pengakuan resmi Pemerintah Mesir ataskemerdekaan Indonesia 54 tahun lalu. Al Banna pula yang mengobarkan jihadmelawan zionis Israel di Jalur Gaza sebelum akhirnya dikhianati kekuasaansekuler dan otoriter Mesir kala itu. Hasan Al-Banna dibunuh secara kejamdengan cara sadis dan khianat oleh konspirasi rahasia kekuatan sekulerhanya karena dia mengajarkan bagaimana kaum beriman harus berjuangmenentukan nasibnya sendiri.

Bagaimana Al-Banna membina kader dakwah dan merintis Ikhwanul Muslimin daribawah hingga tersebar di 70 negara? Semangat apa yang telah membangkitkankemunculannya? Kegelisahan yang bagaimana yang dia rasakan? Kepribadian danmoral apa yang dia tanamkan kepada para murid dan sahabatnya sehingga mampumemompakan energi rohani demikian dahsyat kepada para kadernya, juga kepadadunia? Jawabannya bisa diperoleh jika Anda menelusuri catatan memoarAl-Banna yang ditulis beberapa tahun sebelum beliau dibunuh secara misterius.

''Lewat buku ini, pembaca akan mendapatkan sumber-sumber kekuatan beliau,dasar keagungan dan sebab-sebab keberhasilan dakwah Ikhwan,'' kata AbuHasan Ali Al-Hasani An-Nadawi [Ketua Majelis Ulama Lucknow, India].Kejernihan jiwa, semangat dakwah yang membara, antusiasme terhadap agama,siap berkorban untuk agama, menjalin hubungan erat dengan Allah, senantiasamengisi baterai hati dengan dzikir, do'a, istighfar dan berkhalwat di waktushaur, terjun langsung di masyarakat secara bertahap dan memelihara hikmahdalam dakwah dan tarbiyah adalah pilar-pilar dakwah yang ditegakkanAl-Banna dan kader-kadernya.

Kejeniusan sang da'i, jelas An-nadawi, tampak jelas pada dua aspek spesifikyang jarang dimiliki manusia lain, kecuali beberapa orang saja di antarapara da'i, murabbi, pemimpin dan pembaharu yang ada.

Pertama, antusiasme untuk berdakwah yang luar biasa, yakin dan puas denganberdakwah, memberikan dedikasi tertinggi dalam dakwah dengan segalakemampuan dan instrumen yang dimiliki. ''Semua ini merupakan syarat pokokdan karakter fundamental bagi da'i dan pemimpin. Di tangan mereka inilahAllah mengalirkan kebaikan yang sangat banyak.''

Kedua, pengaruh yang sangat dalam terhadap sahabat dan murid-muridnya,serta kesuksesan yang spektakuler dalam tarbiyah dan kaderisasi. ''Beliaupembangun generasi, pentarbiyah bangsa, pemangku madrasah yang sarat dengannuansa ilmiah, fikriyah dan khuluqiyah. Dia menjadi simbol dan karakteryang senantiasa hidup, kapan dan dimana pun kadernya berada.''

Dengan dua keunggulan kompetitif itu, kiranya dapat kita pahami, bagaimanaHasan Al-Banna dan Ikhwanul Muslimin bisa selamat dari berbagai fitnah danhasutan macam-macam dari kekuatan sekuler. Seorang penilik madrasah, yangsemula ditugasi untuk mengawasi dan menginvestigasi gerakan Al-Banna --atastuduhan agen teroris dan komunis-- tiba-tiba beralik arah mengajukan dirimenjadi anggota ikhwan. Itu dilakukan setelah dia menyaksikan karakter,keshalihan dan keulamaan para murid dan kader Al-Banna yang beragamlatarbelakangnya. Ada pegawai negeri, guru, pengacara, pedagang, petani,tukang batu dan remaja masjid.

Sejumlah kisah teladan dan mutiara kejuangan dakwah ditulis Al-Banna dibuku ini. Salah satunya kisah kejujuran Akh Hafizh, seorang tukang kayu.Satu kali dia diminta Monsieur Saulant, seorang Otorita Terusan Suez asalPrancis, untuk mereparasi furniture di rumahnya. Pemuda itu menyebut biayaperbaikan 130 qirsy. Monsieur berkata: ''Itu terlalu mahal. Penjahat kamumengambil upah melebihi hakmu!'' Dengan tenang, Akh Hafizh menjawab, ''Sayatak akan mengambil upah melebihi hakku. Kalau tak percaya tanya saja kebawahan Anda. Kalau ternyata tuduhanmu benar saya bersedia kerja tanpadibayar. Namun, jika saya yang benar, Anda bayar sesuai upah wajar yangsaya minta, tanpa harus ditambah.'' Ternyata, menurut bawahan direkturprancis, Hafizh berhak atas upah 200 qirsy. Maka, dia pun menyuruh Hafihmemulai pekerjaannya.

''Baik, tetapi Anda telah menghinaku. Maka, Anda harus minta maaf danmencabut kata-kata itu.''
''Minta maaf padamu? Memangnya kamu siapa? Seandainya Raja Fuad pun, sayatak mau minta maaf,'' tukas si Prancis dengan congkak. ''Kalau saya takmeminta maaf, apa yang bisa kamu lakukan?''
''Mudah saja. Saya laporkan Anda ke kedutaan dan konsul Anda. Saya jugabisa lapor ke media massa Prancis. kemudian saya umumkan juga di jalan-jalandan koran-koran asing lainnya. Saya akan berjuang mendapatkan hakku dengancara apa pun,'' katanya tegas.
Monsieu Saulant kaget mendengar jawaban tukang kayu itu. ''Sepertinya sayasedang bicara dengan seorang advokat, bukan tukang kayu.'' Akhirnya diaminta maaf dan mencabut tuduhannya. Begitu selesai Monsieur membayar lebih,150 qirsy. Tetapi, Hafizh tak mau menerima tambahan, dia mengembalikan 20qirsy. ''Saya tak mau ambil apa yang bukan hakku, supaya tidak jadipenjahat!'' Monsieur keheranan. ''Mengapa tak semua buruh Arab sepertimu.Kamu keluarga Muhammad, ya?''
''Monsieur Saulant, ketahuilah semua muslim adalah famili Muhammad. Namun,kebanyakan mereka telah bergaul akrab dan meniru monsieur-monsieur sepertikalian, akibatnya rusaklah akhlak mereka.''

Kisah menarik lain juga dipaparkan. Mulai soal membangun masjid denganmodal niat, menerbitkan koran dan majalah dengan modal 2 pound, menanggungutang jamaah dengan potong gaji selama lima tahun, dan kisah-kisah menariklainnya. Dari memoar ini, Insya Allah, kita dapat belajar banyak untukberagama dan berdakwah secara benar dan istiqomah. Kita juga bisa menemukanbukti akan janji Allah dalam Alquran Surat Muhammad ayat 7 bahwa jika kitamenolong agama Allah, pasti Allah akan menolong kita dan meneguhkan posisikita di depan siapa pun, di mana pun. Wallahu 'alam bisshawab.

The ill-equipped and untrained Arab armies had fought on two fronts at the same time during the early regime of the second Caliph. On the front of Iraq, they engaged the large armies of Chosroes, the mighty Persian Emperor and on the Syrian front they were arrayed against the formidable forces of the Byzantine Emperor.

The Arabs fought a battle all day long against the formidable Roman forces in Syria. The issue hung in balance. The Arab warriors assembled in their camp to review their day's progress. At last a gallant soldier stood up and addressed them in a resolute voice:

"Brothers! God is with us. We are fighting for the noble cause of establishing a regime based on equality, fraternity and justice. Tomorrow I want to teach a lesson to these Roman hordes."
"What?" enquired a voice.
"I propose to face the sixty thousand sturdy soldiers of Jabla, leader of Ghassans, with 30 Muslims only."
"Are you serious, Abu Sulaiman?" enquired the aged Abu Sufyan.
"Yes", replied Khalid bin Waleed whose nickname was Abu Sulaiman.
" I think you have overestimated your strength. In this way you would be playing with the valuable lives of the Muslims", retorted Abu Sufyan.
"No, not at all. In reality, I want to save the valuable lives of the Muslims. In this way, I want to overawe the enemy who are proud of their superior strength and military equipment", replied Khalid bin Waleed.

At last Abu Ubaidah commander of the Arab forces, intervened and it was agreed that the lion-hearted Khalid bin Waleed would face the sixty thousand well equipped sturdy soldiers of Jablah bin Ghassan with sixty Muslims instead of thirty. The next day Khalid bin Waleed with 59 companions fought a memorable battle unparalleled in the history of military warfare against 60 thousand Christians. The battle raged all day long and the sixty Arabs were lost in a sea of armed men, and fought like lions against the surging waves of enemy forces bent upon sweeping them off their feet. The occasional cry of Allah-u-Akbar (God is Great) raised above the din of the battle proclaimed their existence to their fellow fighters who were watching the progress of the battle with great anxiety. At last, with one last effort Khalid bin Waleed who was fighting like a hero, won the day and the Christians were routed with heavy losses. The invincible Khalid won a memorable battle unheard of in the history of warfare. The victory established Arab's superiority over the Romans despite their exceptional inferiority in numbers and equipment.

Abu Sulaiman, Khalid bin Waleed Al-Qarshi belonged to the most respectable Quraish clan. His father, Abdush Shams Al-Waleed bin Al-Mughaira, was considered among the wisest men of Quraish and was known for his oratory and bravery throughout Arabia. Khalid who was hardly 17 years old at the birth of Islam, evinced keen interest in the science of warfare, including riding, lancing and archery, in which he soon earned a high reputation. His memorable charge in the battle of Uhud against the Muslims from the rear was repulsed after hard fighting. Khalid bin Waleed accepted Islam in the 8th A.H. along with Amr bin Aas, another well-known figure in early Islam. His first appearance as a soldier of Islam was in the battle of Mauta, fought in the 8th A.H. in which he exhibited exceptional bravery and military skill. The Muslims, with barely 300 men faced a Roman army of 150 thousand well trained soldiers. The earlier Muslim commanders were killed fighting in the battle-field when the command of the Muslims was entrusted to Khalid bin Waleed, who fought like a lion and broke eight swords in a single battle. Taking a tough rear guard action, Khalid bin Waleed exhibited a rare military skill and got his men safely out of the thick of the battle.

The breach of agreement by the Quraish of Mecca led to the invasion of the Holy city in which Khalid was entrusted with the command of the right flank of the Muslim army. The Muslims entered the Holy city without any resistance and the insurgents were granted free pardon by the kind-hearted Prophet of Islam. `The people themselves (ie of Mecca), however, were treated with special magnanimity' writes Phillip K. Hitti, `Hardly a triumphal entry in ancient annals is comparable to this'. The other campaigns in which Khalid took active part during the lifetime of the Prophet are the battles of Hunain, Najran and the seize of Taif.

The death of the Prophet caused gloom over the Muslims. With the disappearance of central authority, the Arabian tribes rose in revolt against their new faith. Hazrat Abu Bakr who was elected as the First Caliph of Islam was adamant in his insistence on unconditional surrender by the seceders or war unto destruction. Khalid bin Waleed was the hero of these wars. `Within some six months of his generalship he had reduced the tribes of Central Arabia to submission' (Hitti). Before his death, the Prophet (sws) had assigned to Osama the command of a campaign against the Romans. Hazrat Abu Bakr, on his election as the Caliph, was advised by his most trusted lieutenants not to despatch the Muslim force outside the Capital which was threatened from all sides. But the pious Caliph declined to set aside the order of his deceased master and despatched the force under Usama which had a sobering effect on the recalcitrant Arab tribes and contributed immensely in establishing the dwindling military prestige of Islam.

Khalid bin Waleed, the Sword of God, as the Prophet (sws) once called him, was the hero of the successive campaigns against the seceding Arabian tribes. He played a leading role in the pacification of Arabia. Toleiha, Musailma, the impostor and Malik bin Nawera, were defeated one after the other after hard fighting. According to the early historians of Islam, the campaign against the forty thousand sturdy coilers, led by Musailima, was the hardest ever fought by the warriors of early Islam in which the extra ordinary bravery and military skill of Khalid won the day and Musailima was killed in an adjoining garden. This victory established once more the military superiority of Islam all over Arabia.

The neighboring Persian and Roman Empires, which hitherto, scoffed at and underrated the Arabian military strength, now saw a threat to their interests in the rising power of Islam. The pacification of Northern Arabia brought Muslims in conflict with the Persians who ruled over Arabian Iraq and were acknowledged as overlords by the Nomad Arabian tribes inhabiting the neighboring areas. The Persians instigated these tribes to rise against Islam. Such machinations on the part of the Persians against Islam, obliged the kind hearted virtuous Caliph, Abu Bakr, to despatch forces under the command of the invincible Khalid bin Waleed to Iraq on the 12th of Muharram 12 A.H. The first to oppose them was Hormuz, a tyrant hated by his Arab subjects who ruled over the Delta region. Khalid divided his troops in three portions, placing Muthanna in command of the advance column, Adi, son of Hatim over the second and himself bringing up the rear. He advanced strategically on Al Hafir, the frontier military post of the Persian Empire. `Thereupon Hormuz challenged Khalid', writes Sir William Muir `to single combat and though he treacherously posted an ambuscade, was in the encounter slain. The Muslims then rushed forward and great slaughter put the enemy to flight, pursuing them to the bank of the Euphrates', ("The Caliphate --- Its Rise, Decline and Fall"). The battle was called `Zaat as-Salasil' (Mistress of the Chains) because a major portion of the Persian army was tied up with one another by chains to prevent their giving way.

In another campaign near the great Canal of Tigris in which a small flying column under the command of Al-Muthanna was in great peril, Khalid arrived just in time to relieve his lieutenant, defeated the reinforced Persian army with heavy losses, a large number of enemy soldiers being either killed or drowned.

The Persian Court was now alarmed at the unexpected victories of a handful of untrained and ill-equipped Muslims against their force, much superior in number and organization. The Persian Emperor raised a levy of the loyal Arab clans and hastily despatched a formidable force under the command of Bahman, a veteran Persian General. The two armies met at Al Walaja, near the confluence of the two rivers in April 633 A.C. Khalid who divided his arm into three portions, marched forward his advanced columns to meet the enemy while he kept two columns in reserve and surprised the exhausted enemy by an ambuscade placed in the rear. Thus the superior tactics and the great military skill of Khalid won the day for the Muslims against the much superior Persian forces.

A bitter feeling was aroused among the bedouin Christian tribes, who appealed to Ardashir, the Persian Emperor, to avenge their defeat. A large combined force comprising bedouins and Persians was hurriedly despatched under a tried Persian General Japan to meet the Muslim force at Ulles in May 633. A.C. Leaving a strong detachment at Al-Hafir, to guard his rear, Khalid hastily marched forward to meet enemy. The battle was fiercely contested and for a long time the issue hung in balance. At last, after a fierce charge by Khalid, the Persians gave way and fled, leaving behind seventy thousand dead on the battle-field. In a single combat, Khalid had a Persian warrior, who was reputed to be equal to one thousand warriors.

By this time, the Persians were thoroughly disillusioned and their spirit was broken. Nevertheless, the bedouin Christians insisted on expelling the invaders. Amghisiya, a prosperous town in the neighborhood of Al Hira, was surprised by Khalid. The Caliph when apprised of these victories of the Muslim armies, cried out `O, Ye Quraish, verily your lion, the lion of Islam, hath leapt upon the lion of Persia, and spoiled him of his prey. Women shall no more bear a second Khalid'.

Khalid with a flying squadron hastened to the canal head to close the sluices to enable his grounded boats to ascend the canal. Al Hira was besieged by Muslims and capitulated shortly after. A treaty was signed with the residents of Hira in 633 A.C. which was later rectified by the Caliph of Islam. Hira was made the Headquarters of Islamic forces and from here Khalid started the consolidation of his gains. The beneficial reforms introduced by Khalid in consultation with the Caliph in favour of agriculturists and the common man inhabiting the conquered countries provided a striking contrast to the Persian feudalism hitherto prevailing in these regions. Hence, the Muslims were welcomed as benefactors replacing the tyrannical Persian overlords. For precautionary measures Muslim garrisons were quartered here and there and the troops were kept ready in movable columns.

The next to be besieged was the fortress of Anbar, situated on the Euphrates about eighty miles above Babylon. The deep fosse adjoining the fortress was crossed by casting the bodies of worn out slain camels and the city capitulated without much resistance. Ain at Taur, a green spot in the neighborhood of Anbar, was also captured by the Muslims.

Khalid had now reached Al Firad, a place on Syrian Iraqi borders, which was divided by a river. The Syrian frontiers were guarded by a strong Byzantine garrison, which being alarmed at the success of Khalid, made a common cause with Persians and bedouin Christians in order to defeat the Muslim invaders. A long and severe conflict ensued, in which Muslims were victorious and the enemy lost more than one lakh soldiers.

The victories of Islam over the Persians established the supremacy of Islamic arms and the invincibility of Khalid bin Waleed, the Sword of God. Khalid stayed in Iraq for about fourteen months and during this period he fought and won fifteen engagements against an enemy which was far superior in men and arms. The Arabs, who hitherto, considered themselves much inferior to the Persians in all walks of life and acknowledged them their overlords, now shed off their inferiority complex and regained their self-confidence. The lightening victories of Khalid in Iraq which paralyzed the vast and resourceful Persian Empire in such a short space of time, may rank among the most glorious campaigns in the annals of military warfare and have placed him amongst the greatest Generals of all times. He had devised several new tactics which were hitherto unknown to the world, including the charge by the reserve force. He also proved to be a good administrator who consolidated his gains, stationed military garrison at suitable places to secure the area, effected agrarian and other reforms advantageous to the common man which endeared the Muslims to the locals in contrast to their previous feudal Persian overlords. The Muslims with their democratic leanings were preferable to Persian bureaucrats.

After the defeat of the combined forces at Firad in January 634 A.C. the season for Hajj pilgrimage having drawn close, Khalid attempted to secretly perform Hajj. Sir William Muir in his well-known work "The Caliphate--Its Rise, Decline and Fall", writes: `The season for the Mecca pilgrimage being now at hand, Khalid formed the singular resolve of performing it incognito unknown even to his royal master. So, having recruited his army for ten days on the well fought field, he gave orders to march slowly and by easy stages back to Al Hira. Then he set out secretly with a small escort on the pious errand. Without a guide he traversed the devious desert route with marvellous sagacity and speed. Having accomplished the rites of pilgrimage, he retraced his steps from Mecca with the like despatch, and re-entered Al Hira in early spring, just as the rearguard was marching in. So well had he kept his secret, that the army thought he had been all the while at Al Firad, and now was journeying slowly back. Even Abu Bakr, who himself presided at the pilgrimage, was unaware of the presence of his great General'.

The attitude of the Byzantine armies on the frontiers bordering Syria was equally threatening since the time of the Prophet (sws). The Byzantine armies had made frequent incursions into the Arab territories bordering Syria and carried away their cattle and other belongings. Khalid who was stationed on the Syrian frontiers, met with some success against the Byzantine armies. Caliph Abu Bakr, having realized the great danger looming on the Syrian horizon, requested the Muslims to enroll themselves for active service on the Syrian front. More than a thousand Companions of the Prophet (sws), including one hundred who had participated in the battle of Badr volunteered themselves. The Caliph in person went up to the Plain of Jurf to bid farewell to each brigade bound for Syria and gave the following command, as quoted by Sir William Muir: `Men, I have ten orders to give you, which you must observe loyally: Deceive none and steal from none; betray none and mutilate none; kill no child, nor woman, nor aged man; neither bark nor burn the date palms; cut not down fruit trees nor destroy crops; flocks, cattle nor camels except for food. You will also meet with men living in cells; leave them alone in that to which they have devoted themselves .... Instructions of a more general character were given to the leader-to promise good government to the invaded people, and to keep his promise; not to stay much at a time, and always to be straightforward; to respect ambassadors, but not to detain them long lest they become spies; to preserve secrecy where necessary, to make the round of sentinels by night and by day; and never to be slack.'

Three divisions comprising five thousand soldiers each were despatched to the Syrian front under the command of Shurjil bin Hasana, Amr bin Aas, and Yazid bin Abu Sufyan. Abu Ubaidah the would-be Supreme Commander on the Syrian front, was also entrusted with the command of a separate Division. But the Byzantines had mustered a force in the neighborhood of Yermuk which was ten times stronger than that of the Muslims. This necessitated the transfer of Khalid bin Waleed to the Syrian front. The wise Caliph Abu Bakr ordered Khalid to hurry up to the Syrian front with half of his forces, leaving the second half in Iraq under the command of Al-Muthanna. According to historians Tabari, Muqaddasi and Ballazuri, the Caliph had appointed Khalid as Supreme Commander of the Muslim forces on the Syrian front. The lightning march of Khalid and his men through a trackless, waterless and impassable desert lying between Iraq and Syria, is one of the most daring feats ever recorded in living history. He crossed the desert in five days and the eminence on which he stood sill bears the name `Thanniyat ul Ukab' (the Pass of the Eagle).

The Muslim army in Syria was divided into four corps which were operating under the command of four Generals in different sectors. Abu Ubaidah was in command of the division of Hems, with Headquarters at Jabia, Amr ibn Aas was in command of the Damascus Division and Sharjil ibn Hasana was in command of the Division operating in Jordan. On the advice of Umar, the Caliph Abu Bakr ordered the concentration of the entire Muslim force at Jaulan near Yermuk in April 634 A.C. in order to meet an enemy whose resources, wealth and supply of fighting material were unlimited. The Romans, too, drew together all their corps, and the huge Roman army encamped in the semi-circular loop of Yermuk river protected on three sides by the river which they considered to be an ideal camping ground. The Muslim army arrived later and occupied the bottle-neck. The Romans realized their mistake but it was too late. The two armies watched each other for two months when Khalid arrived on the scene. He was entrusted with the Supreme Command of the Muslim forces. According to all authentic historical sources, including that of Tabari, the army of Heraclius numbered two lacs and forty thousand whilst the Muslims were only forty thousand. The Roman army was commanded by some of their famous generals and warriors, including Theodore the Sakkellarius, Bannes the American and Jarja (George). Khalid bin Waleed, realizing the superiority of the Romans in numbers and arms, resorted to his usual tactics and divided his army into thirty eight equal corps, each commanded by tried warriors. On August 30, 634 A.C. the Romans, inspired by the priests, came out from their camp to encounter the Arabs. A terrible carnage ensued and the Romans were defeated with fearful slaughter. According to Tabari, more than one hundred and twenty thousand Romans perished in the valley of Wakusa and were drowned in the river. With this memorable victory in the Battle of yermuk, the whole of Syria lay at the feet of the Muslims. In this memorable battle Khalid bin Waleed exhibited a super military skill, extraordinary chivalry and rare strategic moves. When the news of the disaster was conveyed to the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius at Antioch, he said, `Farewell Syria, my fair province. Thou art enemy's now'; and he quitted Antioch for Constantinople. Khalid declared `Syria sat as quiet as a camel'. But before the decision of the battle of Yermuk, the Caliph Abu Bakr died and was succeeded by Umar. Immediately after his election as Caliph, Umar issued orders for the deposition of Khalid from the Supreme Command. The letter delivered to Khalid in the heat of battle of Yermuk was kept a secret till the issue was decided. Khalid gladly bowed down to the orders of the Caliph and till his death fought as an ordinary soldier in the armies of Islam. He exhibited a sense of discipline scarcely shown by a General of his calibre. Disregarding all the humiliation which this order might have caused him, he continued to serve with unflagging zeal as a faithful solder of Islam in all the campaigns fought in Syria thereafter.

During the Caliphate of Umar, Muslim forces won brilliant victories in Syria, Iraq, Persia and Egypt and the Islamic banner was carried to the western extremities of Egypt in the West and to the shores of the Caspian in the North. The siege of Damascus lasted for more than two months and one night when the birth of a child of the Lord Bishop was being celebrated in the city, Khalid along with his associates scaled the walls and opened the Eastern gate. The cry of Allah-u-Akbar rent the air, and the feasters having understood the critical situation capitulated to Abu Ubaidah, the Muslim Commander guarding the Western gate. The two armies --- one led by Khalid claimed to have captured the city and the other commanded by Abu Ubaidah which had accepted capitulation of the city on certain terms, met in the heart of the city. At last, the terms of the capitulation accepted by Abu Ubaidah were held good for the entire city and it was ratified by Caliph Umar.

Khalik took part in several campaigns fought in Syria, including those of Hems and Kansarain. With the conquest of Kansarain, the last stronghold of the Byzantines in Syria, the rule of Byzantines in Syria came to an end and the Emperor Heraclius retired to Constantinople never to return. The exceptional valour exhibited by Khalid in the campaign of Kansarain obliged Umar to change his view about him. He acknowledged openly : `God may bless Abu Bakr. He had greater sense for the right type of men than myself'.

The respect shown by the Muslim conquerors towards the conquered races in Iraq and Syria was to a great extent, responsible for establishing a stable government and sound administration in these regions. Writing in "Caliphate ---Its Rise, Decline and Fall", Sir William Muir acknowledges: `Had the Muslims ill-treated the people of Syria or persecuted their religion, their position would have been desperate indeed; but their leniency towards the conquered and their justice and integrity presented a marked contrast to the tyranny and intolerance of the Romans.....the Syrian Christians enjoyed more civil and political liberty under their Arab invaders than they had done under the rule of Heraclius and they had no wish to return to their former state....The Muslims, when they withdrew, returned the taxes which they had collected, since they were no longer able to fulfil their part of the bargain in guaranteeing security of life and property. A nestorian Bishop writes about the year 15: The Talites (Arabs) to whom God had accorded in our days the dominion, have become our masters; but they do not combat the Christian religion; much rather they protect our faith, they respect our priests and our holymen, and make gifts to our churches and our convents'. Thus, Muslims in Syria ruled both over the body and the heart of their subjects in Syria and Iraq.

The reason behind the deposition of Khalid was not malice on the part of the great Caliph Umar. He was too great a person to be associated with such acts. As Sir William Muir puts it: `The Military Chief had to give place to the civil functionary; sword to pen; Khalid to Abu Ubaidah. There is no occasion to seek any ulterior motives which might have led Umar to replace Khalid by Abu Ubaidah. Least of all can personal dislike have influenced him. Umar was too great for that.' Umar tried to remove the misunderstanding created among the people about the deposition of Khalid bin Waleed. He sent a rescript to the various provinces announcing that he had not deposed Khalid because of any fault on his part, but because people had begun to repose greater trust in Khalid than in God.

According to the celebrated historians Tabari and Ibni Asakir, Khalid bin Waleed, the Sword of God, died in Hems in 21 A.H. (644 A.C.).

Thus passed way the hero of hundreds of battles with an unrealized wish for martyrdom on his dying lips. `Alas', he murmured, `I, who fought hundreds of battles and have innumerable battle scars on my body, could bot be blessed with martyrdom --- the greatest ambition of all true Muslims'. On hearing the news of his death, Caliph Umar exclaimed, `The death of Khalid has created a void in Islam which cannot be filled.'

`The military campaigns of Khalid bin Waleed and Amr ibn al Aas' writes Philip K. Hitti, in his monumental work. "The History of the Arabs" which ensued in Iraq, Persia, Syria and Egypt are among the most brilliantly executed in the history of warfare and bear favourable comparison with those of Napoleon, Hannibal or Alexander'. (Extracted from "The Hundred Great Muslims")

Few persons in the world have even been endowed with a proverbial memory. One of them is Bukhari, the greatest compiler of Hadith (narratives pertaining to the Prophet's life and his sayings) that Islam has produced. He is said to have retained in his memory one million Ahadith (plural of Hadith) with full details of all the different sources and reporters of each Hadith which came down to him. His Sahih Bukhari (collection of Hadith) is universally recognised as the most authentic collection of Ahadith of the Holy Prophet of Islam (sws).

Abu'abd Allah Muhammad ibn Isma'il, later known as Imam Bukhari, was born in Bukhara on 13 Shawwal, 194 A.H. (July 21 810 A.C).

The newly-born child had scarcely opened his eyes in the world when he lost his eyesight. His father was immensely grieved at it. His pious mother wept and prayed to God to restore the eyesight of her newly-born child. And by the Grace of God, the eyesight of the newly-born child was fully restored.

He lost his father when he was still a child. He was brought up by his illustrious and virtuous mother.

He began his study of the Hadith at the early age of eleven. In his 16th year he made pilgrimage of the Holy places along with his mother and elder brother. There he attended the lectures of the great teachers of Hadith in Makkah and Madinah. He was still 18 years old, when he wrote a book on the decisions made by the Companions of the Prophet (sws) and their followers.

His elder brother, Rashid ibn Isma'il reports that the young Bukhari used to attend the lectures and discourses of learned men along with him and other pupils. But, unlike other pupils he never took notes of these discourses. They criticised him for not taking notes of the lectures and thus wasted his time. Bukhari did not give any reply. One day, being annoyed by their consistent criticism of his carelessness, Bukhari asked his felllow pupils to bring all they had noted down. By that time, his fellow pupils had taken down more than 15 thousand Ahadith. Young Bukhari, to the amazement of all, narrated all the 15 thousand Ahadith from his memory with minutest details which had not been noted down by the follow pupils.

Later, he started on a study pilgrimage of the world of Islam, which lasted 16 years. Of this period, he spend five years in Basrah, visitng Egypt, Hijaz, Kufa and Baghdad several times and wandered all over Western Asia in quest of knowledge and learning . During his travels he reported Ahadith from 80,000 persons. With the help of his exceptional memory he could retain these Ahadith with all their sources in his mind to be penned down at an opportune times.

The fame of young Bukhari had soon reached the distant parts of the Islamic world and wherever he went he was received with great veneration. People were wonderstruck by his deep learning and extraordinary memory.

A large number of learned and pious men throughout the world of Islam became the disciples of young Bukhari.

Darami, who was a spiritual teacher of Bukhari admits that his learned pupil had deeper insight into the Hadith.

Bukhari devoted not only his entire intelligence and exceptional memory to the writng of the momentous work, Sahih Bukhari, he attended to the task with utmost dedication and piety. He used to take bath and pray whenever he sat down to write the book. A part of this book was written by him sitting by the side of Prophet's grave at Madinah.

Bukhari returned to his native place, Bukhara, at last and was given a rousing reception by the entire populace of this great cultural city. But he was not destined to live here for long. He was asked by the Ruler of Bukhara to teach him and his children the Ahadith of the Prophet at his Palace. This he declined and migrated to a town near Samarkand. Here he breathed his last one 30 Ramadan, 256 A.H. (31 August 870 A.C.)

The entire populace of the town and the vicinity came out to pay their last homage to one of the greatest sons of Islam. His grave is still a favourite place of Muslim pilgrimage.

His monumental work, Sahih Bukhari established his reputation as the one of the greatest compilers of Ahadith in Islam.

It is said that Bukhari retained in his memory one million Ahadith of the Holy Prophet of Islam (sws) with all the details of their sources and reporters. Out of the million Ahadith which he had learnt from some 80,000 reporters, he selected 7,275 Ahadith and, according to Ibn Hajar, 9,082 for his monumental work, Sahih Bukhari. He took 16 years to complete it.

This monumental work of Bukharai has been acclaimed by thousands of scholars, and erudite theologians as a rate accomplishment. More than 53 commentaries, some of these in around 14 volumes, have been written on Sahih Bukhari.

This book is divided in various chapters, for which he had planned a complete scheme. In his selection of Ahadith, he exercised great prudence on his part.

Bukhari is the author of about two dozen other books on religion, Islamic philosophy and history. But his monumental work in Sahih Bukhari, whose hundreds of commentaries and translations have appeared in different languages during the last one thousand years.

Hazrat Umar Bin Abdul Aziz, the celebrated Umayyad Caliph whose empire stretched from the shores of the Atlantic to the highlands of Pamir, was sitting in his private chamber examining a pile of State documents. The dim light of the room was adding to the serenity and sombreness of the place and the Caliph could scarcely feel the arrival of his wife, Fatima, till she addressed him, "Sire! Will you spare a few moments for me? I want to discuss a private matter with you." "Of course", replied the pious Caliph, raising his head from the papers, "But, please put off this State lamp and light your own, as I do not want to burn the State oil for private talk."

The obedient wife, who was the daughter of Abdul Malik, the mighty Umayyad Caliph and the sister of two successive Umayyad Caliphs, Waleed and Sulaiman, complied accordingly.

The short rule of Hazrat Umar Bin Abdul Aziz was like an oasis in a vast desert -- a benevolent rain which had fallen on an arid soil. It was the brightest period in the 91-year Caliphate of the Umayyads, which, though short lived, had transformed the outlook of the State and had released such powerful democratic forces that after his death the attempts for the restoration of autocracy under Hishaam failed miserably and ultimately culminated in the fall of the Umayyads at the hands of the Abbasids.

Hazrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz, surnamed "Al-Khalifat-us-Saleh" (The pious Caliph) was the son of Abdul Aziz, the Governor of Egypt, and his mother, Umm-i-Aasim was the grand daughter of the Caliph Umar. He was born in 63 A.H. (682 A.D.) in Halwan, a village of Egypt, but he received his education in Medina from his mother's uncle, the celebrated Abdullah Ibni Umar. Medina, which in those days was the highest seat of learning in the world of Islam, was greatly instrumental in moulding his life to a pattern quite distinct from those of other Umayyad Caliphs. He remained there till his father's death in 704 A.D., when he was summoned by his uncle Caliph Abdul Malik and was married to his daughter Fatima. He was appointed Governor of Medina in 706 A.D. by Caliph Waleed. Unlike other autocratic governors, immediately on arrival in Medina, he formed an advisory council of ten eminent jurists and notables of the holy city and carried on the administration with their consultation. He empowered them to keep a watchful eye over his subordinates. This step had a salutary effect on the residents of Medina, who hailed his beneficent Administration. He successfully strove to erase the signs of ravages committed in the holy cities of Islam under Yazid and Abdul Malik. During his two-year stay as the Governor of Medina, he repaired and enlarged the Mosque of the Prophet (sws) as well as beautified the holy cities with public structures; constructed hundreds of new aqueducts and improved the suburban roads leading to Medina. "Moderate, yet firm", says Ameer Ali, "anxious to promote the welfare of the people whom he governed, Umar's rule proved beneficent to all classes." His patriotic rule was for the good of his subjects.

His just administration attracted from Iraq a large number of refugees who were groaning under the oppression of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf. But, according to Tabari, this migration highly enraged the tyrant who prevailed upon Waleed to transfer him from Medina which he left amidst `universal mourning'.

The Umayyad Caliph Sulaiman Bin Abdul Malik who had great respect for Umar Bin Abdul Aziz nominated him as his successor. On his death, the mantle of Caliphate fell upon Umar Bin Abdul Aziz who reluctantly accepted it. Giving up all pomp and pageantry, the pious Caliph returned the royal charger, refused the police guard and deposited the entire equipment meant for the person of the Caliph in the Bait-ul-Maal. Like a commoner he preferred to stay in a small tent and left the royal palace for thefamily of Sulaiman. He ordered that the horses of the royal stables be auctioned and the proceeds be deposited in the Treasury. One of his family members asked him why he looked downhearted. The Caliph replied instantly, "Is it not a thing to worry about? I have been entrusted with the welfare of such a vast empire and I would be failing in my duty if I did not rush to the help of a needy person." Thereafter, he ascended the pulpit and delivered a masterly oration saying, "Brothers! I have been burdened with the responsibilities of the Caliphate against my will. You are at liberty to elect anyone whom you like." But the audience cried out with one voice that he was the fittest person for the high office. Thereupon the pious Caliph advised his people to be pious and virtuous. He allowed them to break their oath of allegiance to him, if he wavered from the path of God.

His short rule was noted for great democratic and healthy activities. He waged a defensive war against the Turks who had ravaged Azerbaijan and massacred thousands of innocent Muslims. The forces of the Caliph under the command of Ibni Hatim Ibni Ali Naan Al Balili repulsed the invaders with heavy losses. The Caliph permitted his forces to wage war against the notorious Kharijis. but under conditions that women, children and prisoners would be spared, the defeated enemy would not be pursued, and all the spoils of war would be returned to their dependents. He replaced corrupt and tyrannical Umayyad administrators with capable and just persons.

His first act after assuming office was the restoration to their rightful owners the properties confiscated by the Umayyads. He was hardly free from the burial ceremonies of Caliph Sulaiman and wanted to take a short respite when his son asked him if he would like to take rest before dealing with cases pertaining to confiscated properties. He replied, "Yes, I would deal with these after taking rest." "Are you sure, that you would live up to that time?" asked the son. The father kissed his dear son and thanked God that he had given him such a virtuous son. He immediately sat up to deal with this urgent matter and first of all returned all his movable and immovable properties to the public treasury. He deposited even a ring presented to him by Waleed. His faithful slave, Mazahim was deeply moved at this uncommon sight and asked, "Sir, what have you left for your children?"
"God", was the reply.

He restored the possession of the garden of Fadak to the descendants of the Prophet (sws) which had been appropriated by Marwan during the Caliphate of Usman. He bade his wife Fatima to return the jewelry she had received from her father Caliph Abdul Malik. The faithful wife cheerfully complied with his bidding and deposited all of it in the Bait-ul-Maal. After her husband's death, her brother Yazid who succeeded him as Caliph offered to return it to her. "I returned these valuables during my husband's lifetime; why should I take them back after his death", she told him.

The restoration of Fadak provoked mixed reaction from the people. The fanatical Kharijis who had become hostile to the Caliphate soon softened towards Umar Bin Abdul Aziz, proclaiming that it was not possible for them to oppose a Caliph who was not a man but an angel.
The house of Umayyads accustomed to luxuries at the expense of the common man, revolted against this just but revolutionary step taken by the Caliph and bitterly protested against the disposal of their age-long properties.

One day, the Caliph invited some prominent members of the House of Umayyads to dinner, but advised his cook to delay the preparation of food. As the guests were groaning with hunger, the Caliph shouted to his cook to hurry up. At the same time he asked his men to bring some parched gram which he himself as well as his guests ate to their fill. A few minutes later the cook brought the food which the guests refused to take saying that they had satisfied their appetite. Thereupon the pious Caliph spoke out, "Brothers! when you can satisfy your appetite with so simple a diet, then why do you play with fire and usurp the properties and rights of other." These words deeply moved the notables of the House of Umayyads who burst into tears.

In general, he laid great stress on compensating the victims of illegal extortion in any form. His administration of impartial justice went against the interests of the Umayyads who were accustomed to all sorts of licences and could hardly tolerate any check on their unbounded freedom. They plotted against the life of this virtuous member of their clan. A slave of the Caliph was bribed to administer the deadly poison. The Caliph having felt the effect of the poison sent for the slave and asked him why he had poisoned him. The slave replied that he was given one thousand dinars for the purpose. The Caliph deposited the amount in the public Treasury and freeing the slave asked him to leave the place immediately, lest anyone might kill him. Thus died in 719 A.D. at the young age of 36 at the place called Dair Siman (The convent of Siman) near Hams, one of the noblest souls that ever lived in this world. His martyrdom plunged the Islamic world into gloom. It was a day of national mourning: the populace of the small town came out to pay their last homage to the departed leader. He was buried in Dair Siman on a piece of land he had purchased from a Christian.

Muhammad Bin Mobad who happened to be in the Durbar of the Roman Emperor at that time reports that he found the Emperor in drooping spirits. On enquiry he replied, "A virtuous person has passed away. This is Umar Bin Abdul Aziz. After Christ if anyone could put a dead person to life it was he; I am hardly surprised to see an ascetic who renounced the world and give himself to the prayers of Allah. But I am certainly surprised at a person who had all the pleasures of the world at his feet and yet he shut his eyes against them and passed a life of piety and renunciation."

He reportedly left behind only 17 dinars with a will that out of this amount the rent of the house in which he died and the price of the land in which he was buried would be paid.

"Unaffected piety", says Ameer Ali, "a keen sense of justice, unswerving righteousness, moderation, and an almost primitive simplicity of life, formed the brief features in his character. The responsibility of the office with which he was entrusted filled him with anxiety and caused many a heart searching. Once he was found by his wife weeping after his prayers; she asked if anything had happened to cause him grief; he replied: "O! Fatima ! I have been made the ruler over the Muslims and I was thinking of the poor that are starving, and the sick that are destitute, and the naked that are in distress, and the oppressed that are stricken, and the stranger that is in prison, and the venerable elder, and him that hath a large family and small means, and the like of them in countries of the earth and the distant provinces, and I felt that my Lord would ask an account of them at my hands on the Day of Resurrection, and I feared that no defence would avail me, and I wept."

His honesty and integrity have few parallels in the history of mankind. According to "Tabaqat Ibni Sa`ad", he never performed his private work in the light of a lamp which burned the State oil. On every Friday, Farat Bin Muslama brought state papers for his perusal and orders. One Friday, the Caliph brought a small pice of State paper in his private use. Muslama who was aware of the exceptional honesty of the Caliph thought that he had done it out of sheer forgetfulness. The next Friday when he brought back home the State papers, he found in them exactly the same size of paper which was used by the Caliph.

Out of the funds of Bait-ul-Maal, a guest house was founded for the poor. Once his servant burned the firewood of the guest house to heat water for his ablution. He forthwith got the same quantity of firewood deposited there. On another occasion, he refused to use the water heated from the State charcoal. A number of palatial buildings had been constructed in Khanasra out of the funds of the Bait-ul-Mawhich were occasionally used by other Caliphs when they visited that place, but Umar Bin Abdul Aziz never used them and always preferred to camp in the open.

According to the author of "Tabaqat Ibni Sa`d, "he got his articles of luxury and decoration auctioned for 23 thousand dinars and spent the amount for charitable purposes."

His diet used to be very coarse. He never built a house of his own and followed in the footsteps of the Prophet (sws). Allama Suyuti in his well known historical work "Taarikh ul Kulafaa" (History of the Caliphs) states that he spent only two dirhams a day when he was the Caliph. Before his election as Caliph, his private properties yielded an income of 50 thousand dinars annually but immediately after the election, he returned all his properties to the public coffers and his private income was reduced to 200 dinars per annum.

In spite of the fact that Umar Bin Abdul Aziz was a loving father, he never provided his children with luxuries and comforts. His daughter Amina was his favourite child. Once he sent for her, but she could not come as she was not properly dressed. Her aunt came to know of it and purchased necessary garments for his children. He never accepted any presents from anyone. Once a person presented a basket full of apples. The Caliph appreciated the apples but refused to accept them. The Caliph replied immediately, "No doubt, those were presents for the Prophet, but for me this will be bribery."

Ibni ul Jawi, his biographer, writes that "Umar wore clothes with so many patches and mingled with his subjects on such free terms that when a stranger came to petition him he would find it difficult to recognize the Caliph. When many of his agents wrote that his fiscal reforms in favour of new converts would deplete the Treasury, he replied, "Glad would I be, by Allah, to see every body become Muslim so that thou and I would have to till the soil with our own hands to earn a living." According to Fakhri, "Umar discontinued the practice established in the name of Muaawiyah of cursing Ali from the pulpit in Friday prayers."

He was very kind-hearted. Once he was moved to tears on hearing a tale of woe related by a villager and helped him from his private purse. He was kind to animals even and several stories concerning this are found in the early historical records.

He had complete faith in God and never cared for his life. Unguarded, he roamed about in streets listening to the complaints of the common man and assisting him as much as he could.

He introduced a number of reforms; administrative, fiscal and educational. A reformer appears on the world when the administrative, political and ethical machinery is rusted and requires overhauling. This unsurpassable reformer of the Umayyad regime was born in an environment which was very gloomy and necessitated a change. His promising son, Abdul Malik a youth of 17 advised his father to be more ruthless in introducing his beneficial reforms, but the wise father replied, "My beloved son, what thou tellest me to do can be achieved only by sword, but there is no good in a reform which requires the use of the sword, But there is no good in a reform which requires the use of sword."

Under his instructions, As Samh, his Viceroy in Spain, took a census of the diverse nationalities, races and creeds, inhabiting that country. A survey of the entire peninsula including those of her cities, rivers, seas and mountains was made. The nature of her soil, varieties of products and agricultural as well as mineral sources were also carefully surveyed and noted in records. A number of bridges in southern Spain were constructed and repaired. A spacious Friday Mosque was built at Saragossa in northern Spain.

The Buit-ul-Maal (Public Treasury) which was one innovation of Islam and had proved a blessing for poor Muslims during the regime of pious Caliphs, was freely used for private purposes by the Umayyad Caliphs, Umar Bin Abdul Aziz stopped this unholy practice and never drew a pie from the Bait-ul-Maal. He separated the accounts for Khums, Sadqa and Fai and had separate sections for each. He immediately stopped the practice of richly regarding the authors of panegyrics of the royal family from the Bait-ul-Maal.

One of the most important measures was his reform of taxation. He made adequate arrangement for easy realization of taxes and administered it on a sound footing. He wrote a memorable note on kharaaj to Abdul Hamid Ibni Abdur Rahman which has been copied by Qazi Abu Yusuf: "Examine the land and levy the kharaaj accordingly. Do not burden a barren land with a fertile one and vice versa. Do not charge the revenue of barren land." His generous reforms and leniency led the people depositing their taxes willingly. It is a strange paradox that in spite of all oppressive measures adopted by the notorious Hajjaj Bin Yusuf for the realization of taxes in Iraq, it was less than half of the amount realized during the benevolent regime of Umar Bin Abdul Aziz.

He paid special attention to the prison reforms. He instructed Abu Bakr Bin Hazm to make weekly inspection of jails. The jail wardens were warned not to maltreat the prisoners. Every prisoner was given a monthly stipend and proper seasonal clothing. He advised the jail authorities to inculcate love for virtue and hatred for vice among the prisoners. Education of the prisoners led to their reformation.

The public welfare institutions and works received much stimulus. All over his vast empire thousands of public wells and inns were constructed. Charitable dispensaries were also opened. Even travelling expenses were arranged by the government for the needy travellers. A large number of inns were constructed on the road leading from Khorasan to Samarkand.

Umar Bin Abdul Aziz was a capable administrator well versed in his duties towards this world and the Hereafter. He was extremely hardworking and when people urged him to take rest, he never heeded them. He had set before himself Caliph Umar's administration as a model to be copied. According to the well-known Imam Sufian Thauri, there are five pious Caliphs namely Abu Bakr, Umar Farooq, Uthman, Ali and Umar Bin Abdul Aziz. The outstanding feature of his Caliphate was that he revived Islam's democratic spirit which had been suppressed after the accession of Yazid. In a letter addressed to the Prefect of Kufa, he exhorted his governors to abolish all unjust ordinances. He wrote, "Thou must know, that the maintenance of religion is due to the practice of justice and benevolence; do not think lightly of any sin; do not try to depopulate what is populous; do not try to exact from the subjects anything beyond their capacity; take from them what they can give; do everything to improve population and prosperity; govern mildly and without harshness; do not accept presents on festive occasions; do not take the price of the sacred Book (distributed among the people); impose no tax on travellers, or on the marriages, or on the milk of camels; and do not insist on the poll tax from anyone who was become a covert to Islam".

The pious Caliph disbanded 600 bodyguards, meant for guarding the person of the Caliph. He received lesser salary than this subordinates. He attracted around him a galaxy of talented men who counselled him on State matters.

That Umar Bin Abdul Aziz was very kind and just towards non-Muslims has been acknowledged by the "Encyclopaedia of Islam". As a devout Muslim, he was not only graciously tolerant to the members of other creeds but also solicitous towards them. Christians, Jews and Fire-worshippers were allowed to retain their churches, synagogues and temples. In Damascus, Al-Waleed had taken down the `basilika' of John the Baptist, and incorporated the site in the mosque of Ummayads. When Umar became Caliph, the Christians complained to him that the church had been taken from them, whereupon he ordered the Governor to return to the Christians what belonged to them. While he endeavoured to protect his Muslim subjects from being abused, he was also anxious that his Christian subjects should not be crushed by oppressive taxation. In Aila and in Cyprus the incretribute settled by treaty was reduced by him to the original amount.

Once a Muslim murdered a non-Muslim of Hira. The Caliph, when apprised of the event, ordered the Governor to do justice in the case. The Muslim was surrendered to the relations of the murdered person who killed him. A Christian, filed a suit against Hishaam Bin Abdul Malik who later on succeeded as Caliph. The just Caliph ordered both the plaintiff and the defendant to stand side by side in the court. This annoyed Hishaam who abused the Christian. Thereupon the Caliph rebuked him and threatened him with dire consequences.

Umar bin Abdul Aziz laid great emphasis on the ethical aspects of education in order to turn the hearts of people towards charity, forbearance and benevolence. He relentlessly discouraged and punished laxity of morals.

All these beneficial measures added to the stability of the State and the prosperity of the people who lived in peace and tranquility. During his short reign of two years, people had grown so prosperous and contented that one could hardly find a person who would accept alms. The only discontented people were the members of the House of Umayyads who had been accustomed to a life of vice and luxury and could hardly change their heart.

Umar Bin Abdul Aziz did not lay much stress on military glory. He paid greater attention to internal administration, economic development and consolidation of his State. The siege of Constantinople was raised. In Spain, the Muslim armies crossed the Pyrennes and penetrated as far as Toulouse in central France.

His short reign was like a merciful rain which brought universal blessings. One of its special features was that almost all Berbers in Northern Africa as well as the nobility of Sind embraced Islam of their own accord.

Umar Bin Abdul Aziz was a unique ruler from every point of view. The high standard of administration set by him could only be rivalled by the first four Caliphs of Islam. "The reign of Umar II," writes Ameer Ali "forms the most attractive period of the Umayyads domination." The historians dwell with satisfaction on the work and aspirations of a ruler who made the welfare of his people the sole object of his ambition. His short but glorious reign has no match thence after. (Extracted from "The Hundred Great Muslims")